ponedjeljak, 4. rujna 2017.

Take control of your energy consumption

Take control of your energy consumption

The Powerwall is a home battery system that turns your home’s solar panels into an all day resource – increasing self-consumption of solar – while also offering backup in the event of an outage. The Powerwall enables more of your home’s electricity use to come from solar, which enhances solar functionality, and reduces energy costs.
When solar panels produce more power than a home needs, the excess solar is sent back to the grid. The Powerwall enables a homeowner instead to capture and store excess solar power produced during the day for use at night. The result is greater self-consumption of your solar generation and reduced energy costs.

Tesla is far from the only company looking to profit off of rechargeable batteries for the home.

At-home batteries are a necessary purchase for anyone looking to convert their home to solar power. The batteries store the electricity generated by solar panels, which can then be used at night or during peak grid times to save money on your electricity bill.

But the batteries can also be used to charge electric vehicles, which is why many automakers are now selling their own units.

Scroll down to see the 10 at-home batteries looking to take on Tesla's Powerwall 2:

First, some information on Tesla's Powerwall 2 — a 264-pound, lithium-ion battery that you can mount on your wall. Panasonic makes the cells for the battery, while Tesla builds the battery module and pack.

A single Powerwall unit stores 14 kWh of energy, but you can link up to 10 batteries side-by-side to increase storage. A single unit, including installation, can cost as much as $11,450.


Wall mounted, rechargeable lithium ion battery with liquid thermal control.

Model 2
13.2 kWh – For daily cycle applications

10 years

Supported Applications
Solar self-consumption, Time of use load shifting, BackUp

7kW peak / 5kW continuous

Up to 9 Powerwalls

1150mm x 755mm x 155mm

Floor or wall mounted
Indoor or outdoor

Operating Temperature
-20°C to 50°C

Use more of your solar
Instead of sending excess solar energy into the grid, Powerwall stores it for use any time.


Always connected
Monitor your solar energy use in real-time and receive alerts when Powerwall is preparing for cloudy or severe weather.

All in one inverter
Powerwall uses an internal inverter to convert DC energy to the AC energy required for your home, lowering cost and complexity.

Depth of Discharge

Tesla has offered battery and solar installations as one process ever since it acquired SolarCity last November. Tesla is now selling solar roof shingles that are designed to look like an actual roof to compete with rival solar installers, like Sunrun and Vivint, on an aesthetic level.

1. LG Chem's RESU battery is probably Tesla's closest competitor in the space. Last October, LG Chem partnered with solar company Sunrun to bring its battery option to the US.

The RESU is now available to Sunrun customers and its products distribution arm — a similar strategy to making the Powerwall available to SolarCity customers. It stores up to 9.8 kWh of energy and starts at around $4,000 for lower-voltage options.

2. Mercedes also has the potential to rival Tesla's home battery business. The company announced Thursday it will partner with Vivint to sell its home battery in California.

The German automaker is following Tesla and LG Chem by partnering with a solar company to combine the battery and solar installation processes. Mercedes' battery stores 2.5 kWh of energy, but units can be combined to store 20 kWh. The biggest storage option costs $13,000, installation included.

3. Nissan offers a rechargeable battery option, called XStorage, which holds 4.2 kWh of energy storage. The automaker began selling the XStorage in May in the United Kingdom, where Tesla and Mercedes also sell their battery options.

Nissan's xStorage battery costs $4,500, which includes the price of installation. Nissan is looking to set itself apart as a sustainable battery provider by using old battery cells in the units.

4. BMW plans to sell two battery options that can store a whopping 22 kWh and 33 kWh worth of energy, but they have yet to launch. Like Nissan, BMW will take a sustainable approach by reusing batteries from its BMW i3 series.

5. Sonnen, a German company, sells several at-home battery options with up to 16 kWh of storage. The eco compact version pictured here holds 4 kWh of energy and costs $5,950. It comes with the inverter included.

The company derives two-thirds of its revenue from its German operations, but is looking to expand abroad. Sonnen opened a factory in Atlanta in April to begin production for the US market. It also has plans to expand to Australia, the United Kingdom, and Italy.

6. SimpliPhi Power is an at-home battery maker that's been around since 2002, but its original name was LibertyPak Company. SimpliPhi offers several battery options, the largest of which stores 3.4 kWh of energy.

SimpliPhi's batteries can be combined to make a battery pack as large as you need. The company recently partnered with solar installer CivicSolar to provide a comprehensive energy system.

7. Sunverge offers battery systems providing anywhere from 7.7 kWh to 19.4 kWh of energy storage. Weighing around 500 pounds, the battery has to be installed by a trained Sunverge specialist.

Sunverge comes with a corresponding app so you can monitor your solar energy storage and see electric grid costs at different times. A Sunverge unit can cost between $8,000 and $20,000, depending on the size you get.

8. Powervault is an at-home battery system that is sold in the UK. All units come with an inverter included, and the most powerful model stores 6 kWh of energy. Prices start at roughly $3,000.

9. Palo Alto-based ElectrIQ sells a battery for US homes that stores 10 kWh of energy. Its retail price is about $16,000 and includes the price of an inverter.

10. Panasonic, which makes the cells for Tesla's home battery, also has its own unit that can store 8 kWh of energy. It's currently available in Australia.

Panasonic's battery weighs about 185 pounds, but the cost of a unit is not made readily available.

srijeda, 19. travnja 2017.


Renewable Energy Croatia 2012
‘A typical family spends nearly $2,000 per year on their home energy bills. Much of that money, however, is wasted through leaky windows or ducts, old appliances, or inefficient heating and cooling systems. The CCRES Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Savings Projects offer easy, step-by-step instructions to home energy efficiency improvements that will save you energy and money’. – Zeljko Serdar
Installing continuous air and thermal barriers between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned spaces above can save energy and money, improve comfort, and safeguard indoor air quality. Your garage may be a source of multiple pollutants, including dangerous carbon monoxide from car exhaust. In addition to careful air sealing and insulating, never leave your car engine running with the garage door closed and store paints, solvents, and other chemicals in tightly sealed containers.
Before insulating the floor between an unconditioned garage and the conditioned space above, take the time to:
  • Carefully air seal all gaps between the garage and the conditioned space above and the garage and the outdoors (the rim/band joist, for example)
  • Calculate the amount and determine the R-value of the insulation you will need
  • Gather all required tools and materials.

Choose materials that don’t require specialized equipment or tools to install.
  • Blanket insulation
  • Wire fasteners
  • Tape measure
  • Sharp utility knife
  • Caulk and foam sealant
  • Caulk gun
  • Stepladder
  • Straightedge
  • Respirator or dust mask
  • Eye protection
  • Protective clothing, including long-sleeved shirt, long pants, closed shoes, and gloves.


  • Double-check your insulation
    1.) Double-check your insulation
    Before opening the packages, verify that the insulation material is the correct width and R-value.
  • Seal air gaps
    2.) Seal air gaps
    Before insulating, carefully air seal gaps in the floor between the garage and the conditioned space as well as the garage and the outdoors (rim/band joists, for example). Use caulk for gaps smaller then ¼ inch and foam for gaps ¼ inch to 3 inches. In addition to improving energy efficiency, air sealing also helps keep exhaust fumes and other pollutants out of the conditioned space.
  • Fit insulation between joists
    3.) Fit insulation between joists
    Ensure insulation extends to the outside edge of each joist bay and is in contact with blocking or rim/band joist and the subfloor above. When using kraft-faced batts, install kraft facing against the conditioned side of the cavity. The kraft facing creates a vapor retarder that prevents trapped moisture from reducing the insulation’s effectiveness.
  • Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    4.) Adjust insulation for a snug fit
    Ensure ends of insulation are butted snugly together and in full contact with the subfloor of the conditioned space above.
  • Fasten the insulation in place
    5.) Fasten the insulation in place
    Use wire fasteners to support the insulation so that it is in full contact with the subfloor but not compressed.
    CCRES DIY TEAM part of Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources ( CCRES )

subota, 19. ožujka 2016.



Life began about 3.5 billion years ago in the oceans with the appearance of prokaryotes.

The oldest reliable date for the appearance of the eukaryotes is about 1.9 billion years ago, when the first members of a group of unicellular organisms called acritarchs appear in the fossil record  in China.

Acritarchs …
Are probably the remains of a group of ancient eukaryotes
Were plankton
Some resemble dinoflagellates while others resemble green algae
Their relationship among living organisms is uncertain


Eukaryotic cells came into existence probably by a process called endosymbiosis.

Mitochondria arose first, as an early eukaryotic cell engulfed but did not digest a bacterium capable of aerobic respiration. The two organisms lived together, one inside the other, and both benefited.

Fungi, plants and animals are all probably derived from protists.

Fungi and animals are eukaryotes organisms that lack plastids.

Another line of evolution, one that had mitochondria, entered another endosymbiosis with a photosynthetic cyanobacterium, which later evolved into a chloroplast.

This line gave rise to algae including green algae, which in turn produced true plants, the embryophytes.

Several clades exist that still have some extant members whose plastids have numerous prokaryotic characters. Chloroplasts of red algae especially resemble cyanobacteria.

The kingdom Protista contains eukaryotes that cannot be assigned with certainty to other kingdoms

The kingdom Protista is an artificial grouping and classification does not represent evolutionary relationships.

This kingdom is also known as Protoctista.

Protists covered in this course are those photosynthetic organisms that function like plants in ecosystems.

They are the "grass of the ocean".

Protists to be studied include:

Algae: photosynthetic organisms studied by phycologists.
Slime molds and oomycetes: heterotrophic organisms that are traditionally studied by mycologists, although these organisms are not fungi.

Another group of protists not included in this course are the ciliates, flagellates, and other heterotrophs.

The phylogenetic relationship among the different groups of protists is controversial, e.g. the relationship between the green and brown algae.


DNA Structure

In prokaryotes, proteins do not surround the DNA. Its numerous negative charges are neutralized by calcium ions. In eukaryotes, the DNA is packaged with histones forming nucleosomes. The DNA condenses into chromosomes.

The genome is a short circle of DNA containing about 3,000 genes, and lack introns. In eukaryotes, the DNA molecule carries thousands of genes. The chromosomes of eukaryotes have a homologous and never occur as a single chromosome in normal circumstances. Eukaryotic genes have introns, which do not code for any type of RNA.

Nuclear structure and division

Prokaryotic cells lack nucleus. The DNA circle is attached to the plasma membrane. As the cell grows and the plasma membrane expands, the two daughter DNA molecules are separated.

The nuclei of plants, animals and fungi are very similar in structure, metabolism, mitosis and meiosis. Apparently these three clades diverged after the nucleus had achieved a high level of complexity.

In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is found in the nucleus.

The nucleus is surround by two double-layered membranes with nuclear pores.

A nucleolus is present.

The nuclei are typically haploid or diploid. Mitosis assures that each daughter cell receives one of each type of chromosome to maintain the species number of chromosomes.

Meiosis usually occurs as part of sexual reproduction. The pairing of paternal and maternal homologous chromosomes, followed by crossing over and genetic recombination assures genetic diversity.

Some groups of organisms have a unique mitotic process that may represent an earlier divergence in the history of eukaryotes.


Prokaryotes lack membrane bound organelles. They have ribosomes and storage granules, which are not-membrane bound organelles.

Photosynthetic prokaryotes have folded plasma membrane that projects into the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles that compartmentalize the cell and perform different functions simultaneously.

Ribosomes of prokaryotes are 70S, being smaller and denser than the 80S ribosomes of eukaryotes.

Flagella and cilia are uniform in eukaryotes having a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. A few prokaryotes have flagella, and never have the 9+2 arrangement. They are not composed of microtubules or tubulin.

Endosymbiotic Theory.

This hypothesis attempts to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

In 1905, K. C. Mereschkowsky had speculated that plastids were prokaryotes living inside eukaryotic cells.

In the 1960s, plastids and mitochondria were discovered to have their own DNA and ribosomes, both with prokaryotic features.

Plastids and mitochondria divide similarly to prokaryotes.
They lack microtubules.
Their DNA is small and circular, contains a small number of genes, and is organized like prokaryotic DNA.
Their ribosomes are sensitive to the same antibiotics that interfere with prokaryotic ribosomes.

Chloroplasts and mitochondria could have originated from bacteria that were phagocytized by a large heterotrophic prokaryote.

Mitochondria could have derived from an aerobic prokaryote that was ingested but not digested.
Chloroplasts could have been derived from a photosynthetic prokaryote, probably a cyanobacterium.
Chloroplasts originated several times.
An endosymbionts is an organism that lives within another dissimilar organism.

These bacteria were then adopted as endosymbionts rather than being digested.

With time these endosymbionts became simplified and specialized to perform only photosynthesis or respiration.

The DNA of the endosymbionts and many or its functions were transferred to the nuclear DNA.

The nuclear membrane could have originated from an infolding of the plasma membrane of a prokaryote.

Prokaryotes have their single circular chromosome attached to the plasma membrane.

Infolding of other portions of the plasma membrane may have given origin to the ER and Golgi complex.

Primary endosymbiosis gave rise to a clade containing red algae, green algae and a small group called glaucophytes.

Glaucophyte chloroplasts still produce a thin film of cyanobacterial wall between themselves and the cell.
Red algal chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not b, and the cyanobacterial pigment phycobilin, organized into particles called phycobilisomes.
Green algal cells do not have traces of bacterial wall or phycobilin, but instead have chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid accessory pigments, all of which are similar to chloroplasts in true plants.

Chloroplasts have chlorophyll a but not bacteriochlorophyll. This suggests that the cyanobacteria and not photosynthetic bacteria is the ancestor of chloroplasts.

Prochlorophytes are a type of cyanobacteria that have both chlorophyll a and b, and lack phycobilins.

The prochlorophytes Prochloron and Prochlorothryx are closely related to chloroplasts and are thought to have a common ancestor. Prochloron exists as an obligate endosymbiont of marine invertebrates called ascidians.

Secondary endosymbiosis happened when a eukaryote engulfed another eukaryote.

Euglenoids originated when a eukaryote engulfed a green alga. The green alga has become so reduced that only the chloroplast remains.

Heterokonts have two different flagella of different length and ornamentation. They appear to be monophyletic.

One flagellum is long and ornamented with distinctive hairs (tinsels).
The other flagellum is shorter and smooth (whiplash).

Heterokonts are also known as stramenopiles.

Molecular sequence and these unique flagella provide evidence for the close relationship of oomycetes, chrysophytes, diatoms, and brown algae.

They were involved in one or several endosymbiosis with entire cells of red algae.

Heterokonts appear to have diversified and then some entered into secondary endosymbiosis and became photosynthetic, whereas others did not. Lack of chloroplasts in these heterokonts is an ancestral condition.

Pigmented heterokonts may have originated through one or several secondary endosymbioses.

Most pigmented heterokonts have chlorophyll a and c, lack phycobilins, and have four chloroplast membranes instead of two as in red algae, green algae, glaucophytes and plants. Some have the remnant of red alga nucleus called the nucleopmorph, which still contains a nuclear envelope and a few genes.

These cells have four types of DNA; heterokont eukaryotic nucleus, red alga eukaryotic nucleomorph, chloroplast prokaryotic DNA circles, a mitochondrion prokaryotic DNA circles.

Types of cytokinesis

Several types of cytokinesis occur in algae.

Cytokinesis may occur by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

In almost all algae with wall, cytokinesis is similar to that of plants.

In some green algae, the phycoplast consists of microtubules oriented parallel to the plane where the new wall will form, which is perpendicular to the orientation of the spindle.

Embryophytes arose from green algae that divide with a phragmoplast rather than a phycoplast.


The following notes are base on Raven et al, 8th Edition, and Mauseth.


Also known as green algae.

A diverse group of about 17,000 species.

Most chlorophytes are aquatic, but some green algae can live on the surface of snow, on tree trunks, in soils, or symbiotically with protozoans, hydras or lichen-forming fungi.

Chlorophytes range in size from microscopic to quite large: unicellular, colonies, branched and unbranched filaments, thalloid.

Green algae have chlorophylls a and b and store starch as a food reserve inside their plastids.

Most green algae have firm cell walls composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and peptic substances.

The flagellated reproductive cells of some green algae resemble that of plant sperm.

Based on studies of mitosis, cytokinesis, reproductive cells and molecular similarities, the green algae have been divided into several classes. Three of these classes will be studied here:

Body construction in Green Algae

Motile colonies: aggregation of unspecialized cells; flagella present: this is considered to be an ancestral condition, a plesiomorphy.
Nonmotile colonies: similar to the motile colonies but cells have lost their flagella; this is considered an apomorphy.
Filamentous body: cells divide transversally, but sometimes producing a branch; some parts of their body may become specialized, e.g. holdfast for attachment.
Membranous body: cell division occurs in two planes forming a sheet of cells.
Parenchymatous body: cell division occurs in three planes; cells are interconnected by plasmodesmata and true parenchyma tissue is formed.
Coenocytic or siphonous body: karyokinesis occurs without cytokinesis resulting in a large multinucleate cell; the cell remains unspecialized.

Life cycles in Green Algae

The alternation of heteromorphic generations in angiosperms can be traced to green algae.

Monobiontic species consists of only one free-living generation. In some, the haploid phase represents the individual; in others, it is the diploid phase.

In dibiontic species, both stages of the alternation of generations are multicellular

The gametophyte is haploid and the sporophyte diploid.
The two phases may be isomorphic (similar) or heteromorphic (different body plan).
Sporophytes produce spores in sporangia (sing. sporangium).
The sporophyte usually produces spores by meiosis, but some by mitosis – these spores are diploid and produce a new sporophyte in a form of asexual reproduction.
Some gametophytes produce spores by mitosis, which develop into new gametophytes – asexual reproduction.
Gametes are produced in gametangia.
Gametes may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous.

Cytokinesis in the Chlorophyta

The following notes are based on Raven et al.

The classes Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae form a phycoplast during cell division, which is system of microtubules parallel to the plane of cell division.

Nuclear envelope persists during mitosis.
Mitotic spindle forms and then disappears at telophase.
Daughter nuclei are separated by the phycoplast in which the microtubules lie perpendicular to the axis of division.
The role of the phycoplast is presumed to ensure that the cleavage furrow will pass between the two daughter nuclei.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or development of a furrow.
The Chlorophyceae form four narrow bands of microtubules known as flagellar roots, which are associated with the flagellar basal bodies (centrioles) of the flagella.
The Ulvophyceae have a persistent spindle but do not develop a phragmoplast or cell plate.

The class Charophyceae does not form a phycoplast but develop a phragmoplast like land plants.

Formation of a phragmoplast, which is parallel-aligned microtubules and microfilaments at right angles to the forming cell plate, is to generate a guiding and supporting matrix for the deposition of new cell plate.

The phragmoplast is a system of microtubules, microfilaments and ER vesicles that is oriented perpendicular to the plane of division.
It serves in the assembling of the cell plate and the cell wall.
As the cell plate matures in the center of the phragmoplast, the phragmoplast and developing cell plate grow outward until they reach the of the dividing cell. See pages 64-67in Raven et al.
Spindle is persistent through mitosis.
Cytokinesis is by cell plate formation or furrowing, just like bryophytes and vascular plants.

The flagellar root system of microtubules provides anchorage to the flagellum.
The multilayered structure is often associated with one of the flagellar roots.
The type of multilayered structure is often an important taxonomic character.
The flagellar root had multilayered structure of the Charophyceae is very similar to that found in the sperm of bryophytes and some vascular plants.

Class Chlorophyceae

There are approximately 350 genera and 2650 living species of chlorophyceans.

Mostly freshwater species.

They come in a wide variety of shapes and forms, including free-swimming unicellular species, colonies, non-flagellate unicells, filaments, and more.

Cytokinesis may be by furrowing or by cell plate formation.

When flagellate, the flagella are apical and equal in length, and directed forward.

They also reproduce in a variety of ways, though all have a haploid life cycle, in which only the zygote cell is diploid.

The zygote will often serve as a resting spore, able to lie dormant though potentially damaging environmental changes such as desiccation.

Chlamydomonas is motile unicellular chlorophyte.

Two equal flagella.
One chloroplast with a red photosensitive eyespot, or stigma, aids in the detection of light.
Chloroplast has a pyrenoid, which is typically surrounded by a shell of starch.
The cell wall is made of a carbohydrate and protein complex inside which is the plasma membrane; there is no cellulose in the cell wall.
Reproduction is both sexually and asexually.
See the Life Cycle diagram on page 331 in Ravel et al.

Volvox is a motile colony.

The colony consists of a hollow sphere called the spheroid, made up of a single layer of 500 to 60,000 vegetative, biflagellated cells that serve primarily in photosynthesis.
Specialized reproductive cells undergo repeated mitoses to form many-celled spheroids, which are released after producing an enzyme that dissolves the parental matrix.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.

Chlorococcum is a unicellular, non-motile chlorophyte.

Found in the soil.
Reproduces by forming biflagellated zoospores.
Sexual reproduction happens by the fusion of biflagellated gametes, which fuse in pairs to form zygotes.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Hydrodictyon is a non-motile colony.

The individual cells are cylindrical and initially uninucleated and eventually becoming multinucleated.
The cells form a hollow cylinder.
At maturity, the cells contain a large, central vacuole surrounded by the cytoplasm containing the nuclei and a large reticulate chloroplast with numerous pyrenoids.
It reproduces asexually through the formation of many uninucleated, biflagellated zoospores.
The zoospores are not released but form an arrangement within the parent cell, then lose their flagella and form the components of a mini-net.
Sexual reproduction is isogamous and meiosis is zygotic.

There are also filamentous and parenchymatous Chlorophyceae, e.g. Oedogonium, Stigeoclonium, and Fritschiella.

Class Ulvophyceae

Mostly marine algae with a few representatives in fresh water.

Filamentous septate, filamentous coenocytic (siphonous) or thalloid

Filamentous species have large multinucleate cells separated by septa; some may be netlike others straight chains. They have a netlike chloroplast.
Siphonous algae are characterized by very large, branched, coenocytic cells
Thalloid species have a single nucleus and chloroplast.

Majority has one plane of division, unlike the Ulva with three planes

Spindle and nuclear envelope persist through mitosis.

Flagellated cells may have two, four or many flagella directed forward

Alternation of generations with a haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte.

They have sporic meiosis or a diploid, dominant life history involving gametic meiosis.

Cladophora is a filamentous septate ulvophyte.

It forms large blooms in fresh water.
There are both marine and fresh water species of Cladophora.
Each cell is multinucleated and has one single, peripheral, net-like chloroplast with many pyrenoids. Marine species have an alternation of isomorphic generations.
Most of the fresh water species do not have an alternation of generations.

Ulva consists of a two-cell thick flat thallus that may grow up to a meter in length.
It is known as sea lettuce.
Ulva is anchored to the substrate by a holdfast produced by extensions of the cells at its base.
The cells of the thallus are uninucleate and have one chloroplast.
Ulva is anisogamous and has an alternation of isomorphic generations.

Codium and Halimeda are examples of siphonous marine algae.

Very large, coenocytic cells that are rarely septate characterize siphonous algae.
Cell walls are only produced during reproduction.
Siphonous green algae are diploid, with gametes being the only haploid stage.
Halimeda has calcified cell walls.

Examples to study:
Thalloid: Ulva.
Siphonous: Acetabularia, Codium, Ventricaria, Halimeda.
Filamentous septate: Cladophora.

Class Charophyceae

Growth habit may be unicellular, filamentous, colonial or thalloid (parenchymatous).

Considered closely related to plants due to structural, biochemical and genetic similarities.

The orders Coleochaetales and Charales have plant-like characteristics. These include:

Asymmetrical flagellated cells always have two flagella.
Breakdown of the nuclear envelope at mitosis
Persistent spindles or phragmoplast at cytokinesis.
Presence of phytochrome, flavonoids and chemical precursors of the cuticle.
Other molecular features.

Spirogyra is an unbranched, filamentous charophyte.

Found in fresh water, often forming blooms.
Cells uninucleate.
Filaments are surround by a watery sheath.
Chloroplasts one or more, flat ribbon-like with numerous pyrenoids.
Asexual reproduction occurs by fragmentation.
There are no flagellated cells at any stage of its life cycle.
Sexual reproduction takes place through the formation of a conjugation tube.
The cytoplasm of one cells migrates to the other cell and function as isogametes.
A thick wall of sporopollenin surrounds the zygote.
Meiosis is zygotic.

Desmids are a large group of fresh water charophytes.

Lack flagellated cells.
Desmid cells consist of two sections of semi-cells joined by a narrow constriction.
Sexual reproduction is similar to Spirogyra.

Two orders of Charophyceae, the Coleochaetales and the Charales, resemble bryophytes and vascular plants.

They have plant-like microtubular phragmoplast operating during cytokinesis.
They are oogamous and their sperm are ultrastructurally similar to those of bryophytes.

Morphological and molecular studies indicate that an early basal split in the green algae gave rise to a chlorophyte clade containing most of the green algae, and a streptophyte clade that includes the Coleochaetales and Charales, zygnematalean green algae, and land plants (bryophytes and vascular plants).


Include branched filamentous and discoid genera.
Growth occurs at the apex or peripheral cells, and the plant is anchored in mud or silt by translucent rhizoids.
Coleochaete has uninucleate vegetative cells that each contains one large chloroplast with an embedded pyrenoid.
It reproduces asexually by zoospores that are formed singly within cells.
Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
The zygotes remain attached to the parental thallus, which stimulate the growth of a layer of cells that covers the zygotes.
These parental cells have wall ingrowths are believed to function in nutrient transport between gametophyte and sporophyte.


The thallus in some stoneworts is encrusted with white lime, giving a crusty texture (hence the name brittlewort).
The Charales exhibit apical growth.
The thallus is differentiated into nodal and internodal regions.
The nodal regions have plasmodesmata.
Sperms are produced in multicellular antheridia.
Eggs are produced in oogonia enclosed by several long, tubular, twisted dells.
Sperms are the only flagellated cells in their life cycles.
Zygotes are surround by sporopollenin.

Examples to study:

Filamentous: Spirogyra, desmids.
Thalloid: Coleochaete.
Branched filamentous: Chara

Division Rhodophyta

Red algae are mostly marine organisms found in tropical and warm waters. Fewer than 100 species occur in fresh water. Some occur in cooler regions of the world.

Many species are found in very deep water.

There are 4100 to 6000 known species.

Red algae are mostly structurally complex multicellular organisms with very few species unicellular or microscopic filaments.

They may grow attached to the substrate, submerged vegetation and a few are free floating.

Unique Features Of Cells

Their cell wall lack plasmodesmata but they have pit connections. It is not known if these pits are used for intercellular transport.

Red algae do not produce flagellated cells, and lack centrioles.

Most red algae cell walls are made of cellulose microfibrils that are densely interwoven and are held together by mucilage.

The mucilage is a sulfonated polymer of galactose such as agar and carageenan.

Some species called coralline algae, deposit CaCO3 in their walls.

Coralline algae play an important role in coral reef building.

Many produce toxic terpenoids that deter herbivores.

Food reserves are stored as floridean starch in granules.

Floridean starch resembles glycogen.

Chloroplasts are reddish (rhodoplasts) and contain chlorophyll a, α and β-carotene, accessory water-soluble pigments called phycobilins (phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanin).

These pigments absorb well green and blue-green wavelengths that penetrate deep into the water.
Chloroplast chemicals resemble those found in cyanobacteria and may have originated from this group by endosymbiosis.

Complicated Life Histories

Many reproduce asexually by discharging spores, called monospores, into the water.

All red algae have complex life cycles, reproduce sexually and have no flagellated stages.

Gametophyte, carposporophyte, tetrasporophyte.

The simplest form of sexual reproduction involves the alternation of a haploid gametophyte and a diploid sporophyte.

The gametophyte produces spermatangia (sing. spermatangium) that release nonmotile
The female gamete or egg is produced in the carpogonium, on a same gametophyte.
The carpogonium develops a protuberance called the trichogyne for the reception of the spermatia.
The spermatium fuses with the trichogyne and the nucleus travels to the female nucleus and fuses with it.
The resultant diploid zygote then produces a few diploid carpospores, which are release into the water.
Carpospores produce sporophytes that form haploid spores, which in turn produce new gametophytes.

In some red algae, the zygote produces a carposporophyte generation, which remains attached to the parent gametophyte.

The carposporophyte divides mitotically and eventually produces carpospores.
The carpospores are released and settle onto a substrate, and grow into separate diploid sporophytes.

In many red algae, the diploid zygote is transferred to another cell of the gametophyte called the auxiliary cell where it proliferates into many carpospores.

The carpospores produce a new generation called the tetrasporophyte.
Meiosis occurs I in specialized cells of the tetrasporophyte, called the tetrasporangia.
Each tetraspore germinates into a gametophyte.

Division Phaeophyta

Phaeophytes are also known as brown algae

It is an entirely marine group especially abundant in temperate and cold waters.

Common in the intertidal and subtidal zones; dominant alga of rocky shores.

About 1,500 species.

The Thallus

Size - few are microscopic, most much larger - up to 60 m. Larger forms with complex structure.

There are no known unicellular or colonial representatives of this group.

The simplest form of plant is a branched, filamentous thallus (pl. thalli): a relatively undifferentiated vegetative body.

The thalli range in complexity from simple branched filaments to aggregation of branched filaments called pseudoparenchyma.

Adjacent cells are connected by plasmodesmata without desmotubules connecting the ER.


Cells contain numerous disk-shaped, golden-brown plastids that are similar both biochemically and structurally to those of chrysophytes and diatoms.

Chlorophyll a and c (no Chlorophyll b), ß-carotene, fucoxanthin and other xanthophylls.

Food reserves are typically complex polysaccharides, sugars and higher alcohols and sometimes fats.
Glucose and mannitol are polymerized together as laminarin.
Mannitol is a six-carbon sugar-alcohol; it is linked together with glucose in a beta-1,3 linkage.

The principal carbohydrate reserve is laminarin and true starch is absent.

There are two groups based on the presence or absence of pyrenoids.


Kelps (Macrocystis and Nereocystis) and rockweeds have a highly differentiated bodies

The walls are made of cellulose and algin, an alginic acid, a long-chained heteropolysaccharide.
Some have stem-like, root-like, leaf-like organs.
Since they do not have vascular systems, these structures are not true stems, roots, or leaves. Termed rhizoid, holdfast, stalk or stipe, and blade.
Kelps have a meristematic region between the stipe and the blade.
Sargassum and Fucus grow from repeated divisions from a single apical cell.
Some species have floatation bladders.
Some free-floating species have lost the holdfast.

Some of the kelps have modified elongated cells in the center of the stipe that are capable of conducting carbohydrates from the blades near the water surface to the lower parts of the alga.

Some brown algae have evolved sieve tubes comparable to those found in food-conducting tissue of vascular plants. These are called trumpet cells.

Sieve tube elements are joined end-on-end by the sieve plates.

Of great economic importance: fertilizer, food especially in Japan, source of algin - stabilizer & moisture retainer in many products such as ice cream, cake frosting, paint, pharmaceuticals, processing of natural and synthetic rubber.

Life Cycle

Their life cycle involves an alternation of generation, and meiosis occurs during spore formation (sporic meiosis).

The ends of the branches are called receptacles and are swollen with large deposits of hydrophilic compounds. Scattered over the surface of the receptacles are small openings that lead to cavities called conceptacles. Gametangia develop in the conceptacles.

The gametophytes of the primitive brown algae produce reproductive structures called plurilocular gametangia. They may function as male or female gametangia or produce flagellated haploid spores that give rise to new gametophytes.

The diploid sporophyte produces both plurilocular and unilocular sporangia.
The plurilocular sporangia produce diploid zoospores that produce diploid sporophytes.
Meiosis takes place in the unilocular sporangia producing haploid zoospores that germinate to produce haploid gametophytes.

Zoospores have tinsel and whip flagella.

Some groups (e.g. Fucus) do not form spores and have a gametic life cycle without alternation of generations.

Phylum Bacillariophyta

An ancient group that appeared in the fossil record about 250 million years ago, and became abundant in the fossil record about 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous.

Diatoms are unicellular or colonial organisms that form an important component of the phytoplankton.

They may count for as much as 25% of the primary production of the earth.

There may be as many as 100,000 species, some of the most diverse and abundant algae on earth.

Diatoms are the primary source of food for many marine animals; they provide essential carbohydrates, fatty acids, sterols, and vitamins to the consumers.

Diatoms live in both freshwater and marine habitats, but are especially abundant in cold marine waters.

Diatoms can also inhabit terrestrial habitats such as damp cliff faces, moist tree trunks and on the surfaces of buildings.

The Walls Of Diatoms Consist Of Two Halves

Cell wall in two parts known as frustules, are made of polymerized silica (SiO2  H2O, 95%) and carbohydrates especially pectin (5%).

The shell is composed of an upper and lower half, with the lower half fitting neatly within the upper, like a Petri dish.

The shell is highly ornamented and perforated with microscopic holes so precisely spaced that they are used commercially to test the resolution of expensive microscope lenses.

These holes connect the living protoplast with the external environment.

Freshwater forms are usually cylindrical in shape: pennate.
Marine species are usually spherical or circular: centric.

Chrysophytes form sometimes “brown blooms” in fresh and salt water.

Diatoms have chlorophyll a and c, and the golden-brown carotenoid fucoxanthin.

Two large chloroplasts are present in pennate diatoms, and many discoid chloroplasts in centric species.

Food is stored in the form of oils and chrysolaminarin, a soluble polysaccharide stored in vacuoles.

Some species are heterotrophic absorbing organic molecules from the environment. Other heterotrophs live symbiotically in foraminiferans.

Fossil frustules make the diatomaceous earths mined for use as filters, insulating material and abrasive polish.

Reproduction In Diatoms Is Mainly Asexual

Reproduction is usually asexual. Changes in the environment or critical small size triggers sexual reproduction.

Yellow-green algae

Some phycologists as a division or class consider the yellow-green algae different from the chrysophytes. Others include them in the chrysophytes.

They have a variety of body shapes: unicellular, filamentous, siphonous or large multicellular body form.
They have chlorophyll c.
Asexual reproduction occurs by isogamy in Vaucheria.
Sexual reproduction consists of biflagellated sperms and a multinucleated egg.
The zygote breaks off and after a period of dormancy germinates forming a new “tube” filled with haploid nuclei.

Division Chrysophyta

Also know as the golden-brown algae.

Chrysophytes are photosynthetic, unicellular colonial organisms; some plasmodia, filamentous and tissue-like forms. About 1000 known species.

Abundant in freshwater and marine environments worldwide.

Chrysophytes contain chlorophylls a and c, and accessory pigment fucoxanthin, a carotenoid.

Cells usually have one or two chloroplasts.

They store food in a vacuole in the form of polysaccharide chrysolaminarin, which is stored in a vacuole usually found in the posterior of the cell.

Some species are heterotrophic ingesting bacteria, algal cells and organic particles.

Some species have cell wall containing cellulose and impregnated with minerals. Others are without walls. One group has silica plates on the cell surface.

Reproduction is mostly asexual by means of zoospores with unequal flagella of similar structure.

Some species can reproduce sexually.

Resting cysts are formed as a result of sexual reproduction at the end of the growing season.

In many ways, golden algae are biochemically and structurally similar to brown algae.

Division Dinophyta

The dinophyta are also known as dinoflagellates.

Molecular evidence indicates that the dinoflagellates are closely related to ciliate protozoa such as Paramecium and Vorticella, and to apicomplexans, a group of parasitic flagellates whose cells contain a non-pigmented plastid, e.g. Plasmodium that causes malaria.

Apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and others form a group called alveolates.

Most are unicellular biflagellates.

About 4000 known species, most of which are members of the marine phytoplankton.

Their flagella beat in two grooves, one encircles the cell and the other extends lengthwise.

The nonmotile dinoflagellates produce flagellated cells that beat in grooves.

Their chromatin is always condensed into chromosomes.

Many are covered with cellulose plates forming a theca.

About half of the dinoflagellates lack photosynthetic apparatus and feed by ingesting food particles or absorbing dissolved organic compounds.

They have chlorophyll a and c, β- and γ-carotenes, a carotenoid called peridinin,  fucoxanthin, a yellow-brown carotenoid, and other xanthins..

Some pigmented flagellates carry out photosynthesis and also feed by absorbing carbon compound through a protruded peduncle; this is called myxotrophy.

When dinoflagellates are symbionts, they lack theca, e.g. zooxanthellae of giant clams, corals, worms, etc.

Dinoflagellates store their food as oils and starch.

Under adverse periods of low nutrient levels, dinoflagellates form resting cysts that are carried by currents.

Reproduction is mostly asexual but sexual reproduction has been observed in some species.

Some species produce bioluminescence and powerful neurotoxins that are accumulated by fish and mollusks.

They have a characteristic type of nuclear and cell division.


Phylum Oomycota

Oomycetes is a distinct heterotrophic group of about 700 species.

Unicellular to highly branched, coenocytic and filamentous forms.

Oomycetes are either saprobes or symbionts.

They inhabit aquatic environments: marine, freshwater or moist terrestrial habitats.

Their cell wall is made of cellulose.

Their food reserve is in the form of glycogen.

Asexual reproduction is by means of motile zoospores, which have the characteristic two flagella of heterokonts.

Sexual reproduction is oogamous: one gamete large and nonmotile, the other small and motile.

Eggs are produced in the oogonia.
The antheridium contains many male nuclei.
The fertilized egg forms a thick-walled zygote called the oospore.
The oospore serves as a resting stage during stressful conditions.

Oomycetes are also called water molds, white rusts and downy mildew.

Water Molds Are Aquatic Oomycetes.

Abundant in fresh water.

Mostly saprophytic and a few parasitic including species that cause diseases to fish and fish eggs.

Species may be homothallic or heterothallic.

Saprolegnia and Achlya are common water molds that reproduce sexually and asexually.

Some Terrestrial Oomycetes Are Important Plant Pathogens

Terrestrial oomycetes produce motile zoospores when water is available.

Terrestrial oomycetes are important plant pathogens; the genus Phytophthora is particularly destructive to plants.

They attack important crops like grapes, pineapples, onions, strawberries, apples, citrus fruits, cacao, etc.

Phytophthora cinnamomi killed millions of avocado trees in southern California, and destroyed thousands of hectares of Eucalyptus timberland in Australia.
Phytophthora ramorum was the cause of the disease called “the sudden oak death.” It attacks many species of oaks and also 26 other species of plants including firs and coastal redwoods.
The great potato famine in Ireland (1846) was caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans.
A gene has been found in a species of wild potato, Solanum ulbocastanum, from Mexico, that is resistant to potato blight. The resistant gene has now been inserted in the commercial potatoes, Solanum tuberosum.
The genus Pythium attacks and rot seeds in the wild (preemergence damping-off) and seedling (postemergence damping-off)

Before a diatom can undergo mitosis, it must be living in an environment with sufficient silicon to allow it to construct a new shell.
The diploid protoplast undergoes typical mitosis within the shell, and then the two-shell halves separate.
One protoplast gets the top half, and the other gets the bottom half.
In either case, the protoplast then secretes a new "bottom" to the "Petri dish"(i.e., a new half fitting inside the old half).
This means that after every mitotic division, one of the resulting diatoms is smaller than the original. This can go on for several generations.
Eventually, the protoplast inside the tiny shell undergoes meiosis rather than mitosis. Four haploid gametes are released from the shell, which is discarded.
When two gametes meet and fuse, the resulting diploid cell is called an auxospore (zygote).
The auxospore grows into a normal size of the species.
It then secretes a silica case of the original size...and the cycle begins anew.
Sexual reproduction in centric diatoms is usually oogamous, and in pennate diatoms non-motile isogamous.

Division Euglenophyta.

Mostly unicellular fresh water organisms; one colonial genus.

Molecular evidence indicates that earlier euglenoids were phagocytic.

About one third of euglenoids contain chloroplasts; their chloroplasts resemble those of the green algae and suggest that they were formed from endosymbiotic green algae.

About two thirds of the genera are colorless heterotrophs that depend on particle feeding and absorption of dissolved organic compounds.

They are mostly freshwater organisms living in waters rich in organic compounds and particles.

Cell structure:

Cell membrane, with pellicle immediately beneath the membrane.
Lack cell wall; one genus has a wall-like covering made of manganese and iron minerals.
The pellicle is made of  protein strips arranged in the form of a helix; it may be rigid or flexible.
Single flagellum for movement coming from the reservoir, and a second non-emergent flagellum.
Flagellar swelling and the stigma or eyespot makes the light-sensing system.
Contractile vacuole used in maintaining water balance.
Pyrenoids are found in chloroplasts. It is a region where rubisco is found and paramylon, a polysaccharide is stored.
Pigments present: chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids and several xanthophylls.
Euglenoids grown in absence of light have been known to lose their chloroplasts and become heterotrophic.
Reproduction in euglenoids is asexual, by mitotic cell division. Sexual reproduction is unknown.
The nuclear membrane remains intact during mitosis in a way similar to the fungi.
About 900 species are known.
An intact mitotic nuclear envelope is probably a primitive condition. The break down of the nuclear membrane is probably a derived condition that appeared after euglenoids separated from the main stack of protists.



The Ecology of the algae is not found in your textbook.

Algae are dominant in salt and fresh water habitat.

Everywhere they grow, they play a role similar to that of plants in terrestrial habitats.

Along rocky shores, the large and more complex members of the brown, red and green algae grow forming bands that reflect the ability of the seaweeds to withstand exposure.

Seaweeds in this intertidal zone are exposed twice a day to large fluctuations of humidity, salinity and light, in addition to pounding action of the surf and forceful, abrasive water motions.

Polar seaweeds endure months of darkness under the sea ice.

Seaweeds are the food source to a host of herbivores and parasites.

Large beds of seaweeds provide a safe habitat for many aquatic organisms, e.g. kelp beds off the coast of California.

Plankton refers to all suspended drifting organisms found in all bodies of water.

Planktonic algae and cyanobacteria constitute the phytoplankton found in oceans and fresh water.
Heterotrophic plankton and usually swimming microorganisms are called zooplankton.
Bacteria and some heterotrophic protists form the bacterioplankton.

Phytoplankton is found at the base of the food chain.

Colonial and single-celled chrysophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms and green algae are the most important organisms at the base of the food chain in freshwater habitats.
Unicellular and colonial haptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms are the primary producers of the ocean.

In both marine and freshwater habitats, phytoplankton populations are kept in check by seasonal climatic changes, nutrient limitation and predation.

Phytoplankton is the major producers of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Phytoplankton reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere by fixing it during photosynthesis.

Phytoplankton is important in the deposition of CaCO3 deposits on the ocean floor.

The CO2 fixed by photosynthesis and the calcification process is replaced by atmospheric CO2

Several types of multicellular algae are important members of coral reefs and deposit a substantial amount of calcium compound important in coral building.

Some haptophyte protists produce substantial amounts of sulfur oxides that are added to the atmosphere and reflect sunlight helping to maintain a cooler temperature.

part of
Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources

nedjelja, 27. prosinca 2015.

Energetski Certifikat

Energetski Certifikat

Dolazi nam puno upita pa da pojasnimo za koga je OBAVEZAN Energetski Certifikat.

Energetski certifikat mora imati zgrada javne namjene ili dio zgrade mješovite namjene koji se kao samostalna uporabna cjelina koristi za javnu namjenu ako ima ukupnu korisnu površinu veću od 500 m2, a od 9. srpnja 2015. veću od 250 m2 te svaka druga zgrada koja se gradi, prodaje, iznajmljuje, daje u leasing ili u zakup, odnosno njezina samostalna uporabna cjelina koja se gradi ili prodaje.
Vrste zgrada u cjelini ili samostalnih uporabnih cjelina zgrada za koje se izdaje energetski certifikat određene su prema pretežitoj namjeni korištenja i dijele se na:

A. stambene zgrade:
s jednim stanom i stambene zgrade u nizu s jednim stanom za koje se izrađuje jedan energetski certifikat,
sa dva i više stana i zgrade za stanovanje zajednica (npr.: domovi umirovljenika, đački, studentski, radnički odnosno dječji domovi, zatvori, vojarne i slično) za koje se u pravilu izrađuje jedan zajednički certifikat, a može se izraditi i zasebni energetski certifikat.

B.1. nestambene zgrade:
uredske, administrativne i druge poslovne zgrade slične pretežite namjene,
školske i fakultetske zgrade, vrtići i druge odgojne i obrazovne ustanove,
bolnice i ostale zgrade namijenjene zdravstveno-socijalnoj i rehabilitacijskoj svrsi,
hoteli i restorani i slične zgrade za kratkotrajni boravak (uključivo apartmani),
sportske građevine,
zgrade veleprodaje i maloprodaje (trgovački centri, zgrade s dućanima),
druge nestambene zgrade koje se griju na temperaturu +18°C ili višu (npr.: zgrade za promet i komunikacije, terminali, postaje, zgrade za promet, pošte, telekomunikacijske zgrade, zgrade za kulturno-umjetničku djelatnost i zabavu, muzeji i knjižnice, i sl.),

B.2. ostale nestambene zgrade u kojima se koristi energija radi ostvarivanja određenih uvjeta kondicioniranja.
Stambene i nestambene zgrade svrstavaju se u osam energetskih razreda prema energetskoj ljestvici od A+ do G, s tim da A+ označava energetski najpovoljniji, a G energetski najnepovoljniji razred.

Izdavanje energetskog certifikata nije potrebno za:

nove zgrade, postojeće zgrade i samostalne uporabne cjeline zgrade u novim ili postojećim zgradama koje se prodaju, iznajmljuju, daju na leasing ili daju u zakup i koje imaju uporabnu korisnu površinu manju od 50 m2;
zgrade koje imaju predviđeni vijek uporabe ograničen na dvije godine i manje;
privremene zgrade izgrađene u okviru pripremnih radova za potrebe organizacije gradilišta;
radionice, proizvodne hale, industrijske zgrade i druge gospodarske zgrade koje se, u skladu sa svojom namjenom, moraju držati otvorenima više od polovice radnog vremena ako nemaju ugrađene zračne zavjese;
jednostavne građevine utvrđene posebnim propisom;
postojeće zgrade ili njihove samostalne uporabne cjeline koje se prodaju ili se pravo vlasništva prenosi u stečajnom postupku u slučaju prisilne prodaje ili ovrhe;
postojeće zgrade ili njihove samostalne uporabne cjeline koje se prodaju ili iznajmljuju bračnom drugu ili članovima uže obitelji;
zgrade koje se ne griju ili se griju na temperaturu do +12 °C osim hladnjača.

U nastavku Vam donosimo:



Nadamo se da smo bili od pomoći svima kojima je energetski certifikat potreban,
Željko Serdar, Hrvatski Centar Obnovljivih Izvora Energije (HCOIE)

četvrtak, 24. prosinca 2015.

Merry Christmas

Merry Christmas

On my behalf and on behalf of all who are part of CCRES, I want to thank you with all my heart for all the good you have done supporting us throughout this year.

Thank you!

Today I only want this: to stop for a moment, think of you, wish you a Merry Christmas, and say thank you for what you have done and continue to do defending life, family, freedom, and the values that make Christmas.

May Jesus bless you and keep you, and give you a great, holy, and Merry Christmas!

Zeljko Serdar, Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

petak, 18. prosinca 2015.

Croatia HCFC free

Croatia is HCFC Free 26 years before the deadline set by the Montreal Protocol

As stated by the Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection on December 17, 2015, Croatia is the first country in the world to completely abolish the use of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC), one of the most damaging substances to the ozone layer.

Zeljko Serdar, Croatian Center of Renewable Energy Sources (CCRES)

subota, 12. rujna 2015.

Grijanje na pelete

Grijanje na pelete

Pelet je gorivo budućnosti

Pelet su cilindrična zrna sa dijametrom 5-6 mm i dužinom 10-25 mm.
Pelet je prešani drvni ostatak vlažnosti manje od 10 % što mu daje visoku energetsku učinkovitost. Peleti su biogorivo koje se koristi za grijanje najrazličitijih prostora dobivanje toplinske energije. Energetska vrijednost peleta je oko 18 MJ/kg peleta (5 kW/h).
Postupak proizvodnje peleta iz krupnog “otpada”
Krupno drvo se melje u sječku ili takozvani čips koji se potom dodatno melje u piljevinu. Dobivena piljevina najčešće sadrži preveliki udio vlage te ju je potrebno dodatno sušiti u posebnim sušarama za piljevinu. Takva piljevina je osnovna sirovina za proizvodnju peleta.

2 kg peleta1 lit ulja za loženje
1,85 kg peleta1 m3 zemnog plina
650 kg peleta zauzima 1 m3 prostora
3 m3 peleta1000 lit ulja za loženje
Potrošnja peleta 1 kg/h5 kW snage
Automatika sagorjevanja u pećima i kotlovima na pelet stavlja pelete u isti rang sa loživnim uljem i plinom. Peći se automatski pale i gase, postižu i održavanju temperaturu koju im se zada, te imaju automatsko doziranje. To im daje prednost pred grijanjem na drva ili drveni briket.
Spadaju u obnovljive izvore energije te se rade od drvnog ostatka koji se nekad deponirao, a danas mu se daje dodana vrijednost u obliku peleta kao gotovog proizvoda.


ČUVAMO ŠUMECjelokupni potencijal korištenja biomase u proizvodnji energije, električne ili toplinske, je nemjerljiv i znatno može doprinijeti poboljšanju korištenja OIE, prilagodbi Kyoto protokolu i ruralnom razvoju jer se sva proizvodnja redovito odvija na relativno pasivnim šumovitim područjima.
Peleti su u usporedbi s fosilnim gorivima gotovo CO2 neutralni a to znači da prilikom sagorijevanja peleta dolazi do zatvaranja CO2 kruga jer sagoreno drvo otpušta onoliko CO2 koliko ga je primilo tijekom života. To je važno jer u procesu sagorijevanja fosilnih goriva CO2 odlazi u atmosferu gdje ostaje milijune godina.
S ekonomskog gledišta, raširena upotreba drvnih peleta otvara nova radna mjesta, naročito u ruralnim dijelovima gdje je smještena drvna industrija. Pojačanim korištenjem peleta otvaraju se nova radna mjesta u industriji, obrtništvu i uslužnoj djelatnosti kao i u šumarstvu i poljoprivredi, čime se osigurava i poboljšava socijalna struktura jedne regije.
Do kolovoza 2008. cijena drvnog peleta bila je oko 60 posto niža nego cijena nafte. Danas korištenjem peleta umjesto nafte možemo ostvariti uštedu do 40 posto!
Opskrba drvnim peletom je sigurna i trajna jer je drvo, za razliku od fosilnih goriva, obnovljiv izvor energije. Europa koristi oko 90 mil. tona nafte za grijanje svake godine, no zalihe nafte i plina su ograničene.

Ako se u jednoj obiteljskoj kući zamijeni peć na naftu sustavom na pelete, smanjit će se emisija CO2 za pet tona u godinu dana!

CO2 neutralan – korištenjem peleta, smanjuje se efekt staklenika u atmosferi!
peleti_detalj_peci peci_na_pelete kamin_na_pelete

Kamini na pelete

Zašto odabrati kamin na pelete?
Grijanje na pelete daje vašem domu pravi prirodni ugođaj. Kroz prozirna vrata ložišta možete vidjeti prekrasan plamen. Jednostavan je za upotrebu, potpuno automatski program omogućuje vam jednostavno rukovanje i  reguliranje. Općenito, potrebna snaga za zagrijavanje 200m3 je oko 15kW, kapacitet grijanja s kvalitetnim peletima je 5,5 – 6kW (1kg).
Potrošnja peleta na najvećoj snazi je je oko 2,6 kg/sat, znači u kunama oko 5 – 6 kuna/sat. Cijena peleta ne ovisi o cijeni nafte i plina, znači na eventulano povećanje cijene nafte i plina na svjetskom tržištu neće povećati cijenu pelete zato što su peleti proizvod iz lokalnih resursa, naših šuma i proizvode se u Hrvatskoj.
Kamini imaju modernu regulaciju i ovisno od proizvođača isporučuju se i daljinski upravljači. Regulacije imaju dnevnu ili tjednu programiranost te regulaciju snage do pet razina. Kamini nekih proizvođača odlikuju se i raznim inovativnim rješeninjima koja povećavaju iskoristivost samog kamina te i zašitu komponenti u samom radu.
Cijenu kamina definira i vizualni izgled kamina, materijali oplate i boja. Kamini mogu biti opremljeni ventilirajućim ispustima kojima možemo distribuirati topli zrak u ostale prostorije ili toplinskim izmjenjivačem za zagrijavanje kotlovske vode za grijanje radijatora. U slučaju s izmjenjivačem kamini su najčepče opremljeni i pumpom te ekspanzionom posudom, takva izvedba znatno povisuje cijenu kamina, ali na tržištu je najtraženija.
Svi proizvođači kamina na pelete u ponudi imaju iugradbeni kamin na pelete, uložak dolazi s spremnikomza pelete, također potpuno automatiziran i s daljinskimupravljačem.


Grijanje peletima jeftinije je 40 posto nego grijanje na naftu i plin. Cijene peleta su relativno stabilne a peleti se proizvode u Hrvatskoj pa je opskrba ovim gorivom sigurna.
Cijene peleta vreće od 15kg (19,50 kn – 1,3 kn/kg + PDV).
Cijene peći na pelete (14.-23.000 kn).
Drveni pelet
Prirodni plin
Lož ulje
Tečaj: 7,5 kn

Drvni pelet - 0,370 kn / kWh
CTS-HEP - 0,410 kn / kWh
Prirodni plin - 0,608 kn / kWh
UNP - 0,806 kn / kWh
Lož ulje - 0,826 kn / kWh
1. Drveni pellet
Cijena s PDV-om
Ogrijevna vrijednost
Sezonska učinovitost
Cijena kWh:
2. CTS – HEP Tolinarstvo
Energija s PDV-om
Cijena kWh:
3. Prirodni plin
Cijena s PDV-om
D. ogrijevna vrijednost
Sezonska učinovitost
Cijena kWh:
4. UNP spremnik
Cijena s PDV-om
D. ogrijevna vrijednost
Sezonska učinovitost
Cijena kWh:
5. EL lož ulje
Cijena s PDV-om
Ogrijevna vrijednost
Sezonska učinovitost
Cijena kWh:
Želim znati više
Drvenjača d.d.
Energy Pellets d.o.o.
Finvestcorp d.d.
Moderator d.o.o.
Mundus Viridis d.o.o.
Pin d.o.o.
Spačva d.d.

Šišarka d.o.o.